A Step for the Future Sustainability in Pakistan: Transformation of Motor vehicle Fuel coming from CNG to HCNG & its Environmental Effects/Benefits' Qandeel Fatima Gillani *, Farrukh Jamil**, Waqar-un-Nisa***, Dr . Moinuddin Ghauri**** Division of Chemical substance Engineering COMSATS Institute info Technology Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan Abstract- The land of Pakistan is highly enriched with treasure of natural gas reservoirs due to that compressed natural gas CNG is definitely abundantly employed all over the Pakistan as a automobile fuel. Gas can be combined with hydrogen to make HCNG. HCNG motor vehicle offers the potentials for immediate emission rewards, reduction in NOx/ SOx emission, which ultimately affects efficiently on the environment. At the same time they will pave how for a move of gas cell vehicles by building early demand for hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle motivated with hydrogen based transportations for foreseeable future. This paper will generally focus the blends of H and CNG being a fuel and its benefits for future years of Pakistan. I. ADVANTAGES fuels happen to be increasing and this is the main reason that transportation in Pakistan is becoming very costly day by day. Rapid growth in transportation sector has took place in last two 10 years in Pakistan. CNG is less expensive, environmental friendly and popular alternative travel fuel. Hydrogen is an excellent component to methane or fuel due to its one of a kind characteristics. The blends of Hydrogen and CNG provide effectively while fuel to get vehicles. 2. CNG AUTOMOBILES & BASIC INFRASTRUCTURES Pakistan is third largest nation in world that using CNG as a vehicles fuel. In June 2007, 1550000 three or more vehicles on road were operating due to CNG fuel, which is 24. 9% of total vehicles. This year, no of vehicles can approximately 3500000 with total annual growth of 55. 1% [Based in data coming from IANGV]. Pakistan has major number of CNG stations that is 1450 4'5 in June 2008. Gas vehicles happen to be potential substitute for gasoline cars in short term. They are fewer polluting and fuel can be widely available in Pakistan. III. HCNG AS BEING A FUEL:
The majority of energy utilized in world is supplied by non-renewable fuels. Burning of fossil fuels produces waste materials, mainly emissions towards the atmosphere in form of burning fuel gases and dust, as well as some lung burning ash and/or clinker. These waste products have hazardous effects about environment, a few of them locally, other folks with more common or even global impact. 1 Pakistan is the fact part of terrain which is extremely rich with treasure of natural gas. It is one of the majority of abundant strength resources in Pakistan. Gas is combination of various gases, major element is methane. In characteristics, this is odorless and clear gas. In year 2007-2008, natural gas usage in Pakistan was 1817. 741 MMCF/day 2 . Gas is a domestically available power source with all consumers including household, commercial, industrial, electricity generation, and automobile. While the liquid petroleum fuels are current standard to get automotive applications, some assume that hydrogen should indeed be future automobile fuel of choice. A transition to hydrogen-fueled automobiles will require a litte time. A single approach getting suggested because an early step is notion of blending hydrogen with compressed natural gas (H/CNG) for use in inner combustion engine vehicles. Current natural gas search engines and cars can be revised to operate in H/CNG with available technology. Pakistan has been suffering from severe kind of strength crisis pertaining to long. Vehicles fuels will be major element of our energy consumption scenario. Prices of transportation 2. Corresponding author. Address: Dept. of Chemical Engineering, CIIT Lahore. Email: [email protected] edu. pk, [email protected] com one particular Cripp L., Energy as well as the environment: http://eco.gn.apc.org/pubs/energy and environment. html. two www.sngpl.com.pk
Since last 12-15 years, various experiments have been conducted around world. Difficulties topic of the study is reduction of emission with respect to...
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